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Our findings suggest that the communication and awareness of health hazard of recreational drugs should be reinforced in HIV prevention education, especially through new media.Future research is needed to further explore how integrative strategies should be used to reduce the substance abuse and risky sexual behaviors. Amyl nitrites have a long history of abuse and are commonly referred to as “poppers.” Butyl and isobutyl nitrites have become attractive substitutes when amyl nitrites are refrained from non-medical use [].A unique code was assigned to each participant to link the questionnaire and the specimens.Questionnaire items about socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the socio-demographic characteristics in a previous study [].First, study materials were distributed through internet advertisement by the Tianjin Deep Blue Volunteers Workgroup.Second, peer educators distributed cards containing information that was relevant to our study at MSM-common locations, such as MSM clubs, bars, and bathhouses.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to understand the knowledge, attitude, and status of nitrite inhalant use among Chinese MSM.

Blood samples were collected for laboratory testing of HIV, HSV, and syphilis serology.

Along with the acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) epidemic, studies have shown a correlation between nitrite inhalant use and unsafe sexual behaviors, which lead to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and increased risk of HIV seroconversion among MSM [].

Injection drug use was the initial route of HIV transmission, but the risk of sharing needles, syringes, or other sources of bloodborne infections has decreased significantly over the past few years because of the national needle exchange program.

All interviewers were peer-educators from the Tianjin Deep Blue Volunteers Workgroup and all interviewers had HIV/AIDS health educator certification through the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention.

Data from individual participants were collected in a private room using a questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer.

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