Radiometric dating seafloor
Such interactions are believed to be responsible for most of the seismic and volcanic activity of the earth.Plates cause mountains to rise where they push together, and continents to fracture and oceans to form where they rift apart.Scientific understanding of the earth's surface features is clearly still in its infancy, to say nothing of the earth's interior.Beloussov (1980, 1990) held that plate tectonics was a premature generalization of still very inadequate data on the structure of the ocean floor, and had proven to be far removed from geological reality. quite understandable that attempts to employ this conception to explain concrete structural situations in a local rather than a global scale lead to increasingly complicated schemes in which it is suggested that local axes of spreading develop here and there, that they shift their position, die out, and reappear, that the rate of spreading alters repeatedly and often ceases altogether, and that lithospheric plates are broken up into an even greater number of secondary and tertiary plates.
The problems posed by vertical tectonic movements are reviewed, including evidence for large areas of submerged continental crust in today's oceans.
Pangaea is widely believed to have started fragmenting in the early Jurassic -- though this is sometimes said to have begun earlier, in the Triassic, or even as late as the Cretaceous -- resulting in the configuration of oceans and continents observed today. 411) argued that this is "an admirable description of what has happened in the field of earth dynamics, where one hypothesis -- the new global tectonics -- has been permitted to override and overrule all other hypotheses." Nitecki et al.
It has been said that "A hypothesis that is appealing for its unity or simplicity acts as a filter, accepting reinforcement with ease but tending to reject evidence that does not seem to fit" (Grad, 1971, p. (1978) reported that in 1961 only 27% of western geologists accepted plate tectonics, but that during the mid-1960s a "chain reaction" took place and by 1977 it was embraced by as many as 87%.
All these schemes are characterised by a complete absence of logic, and of patterns of any kind.
The impression is given that certain rules of the game have been invented, and that the aim is to fit reality into these rules somehow or other. 303) According to the classical model of plate tectonics, lithospheric plates creep over a relatively plastic layer of partly molten rock known as the asthenosphere (or low-velocity zone).