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About 23% had sex with two or more female sex workers in the last 12 months.18 The survey found varying condom use depending on whom the respondents were having sex with.
The results showed that, of the men questioned, condom use was at 86% with sex workers, 77% with non-regular partners, 63% with a regular partner and just 7% with wives.
28 Although this is a significant decline from 13,000 new infections among children in 2010, these latest statistics also show a turning trend from recent improvements where, in 2015, just 4,700 new infects occurred among children in comparison.29 There has been a rigorous prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme implemented in Zambia, which has seen the percentage of children born HIV-positive drop by 51% between 20.30 In 2015, 87% of pregnant women living with HIV were receiving effective antiretroviral treatment, just under universal health targets of 90%.31 Despite these promising changes, new challenges have arisen for those infants exposed to HIV at birth, with many struggling to adhere to treatment.
Women are often taught never to refuse their husbands sex or to insist their partner uses a condom.The enactment of the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act took place in 2011, with a view to changing the unequal structure of society.25 In the coming years it is hoped that this change in law will stop women being disproportionately affected by HIV.However, there is still much to be done as more than 30% of ever married or partnered women aged 15–24 years in Zambia experienced physical or sexual violence from a male intimate partner in the previous 12 months, according to 2015 UNAIDS data.26 Children have been severely affected by the HIV epidemic in Zambia, where 85,000 children are estimated to be living with HIV, alongside 380,000 children orphaned by AIDS.27IIn 2016, 8,900 children (0-14 years) in Zambia became newly infected with HIV.Around 1.2 million people in Zambia are living with HIV.5 In 2015, life expectancy for men was 59 years and for women 65 years.6 This is a considerable increase from the 2012 life expectancy of 49.4 years, partly thanks to improved access to antiretroviral treatment.7 Unprotected heterosexual sex drives the Zambian HIV epidemic, with 90% of new infections recorded as a result of not using a condom.Zambia's national HIV response is keen to address this in their future plans.8 Until recently, Zambia had not systematically collected data or monitored the impact of HIV and AIDS on key affected populations although this is now changing.